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首页>英语>同步>英语八年级上: Chapter One 《A letter from a pen-friend》 —writing, more practice (牛津沈阳版)

英语八年级上: Chapter One 《A letter from a pen-friend》 —writing, more practice (牛津沈阳版)

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资料类别:  英语/同步 所属版本:  牛津沈阳
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初二英语Chapter One: A letter from a pen-friend —writing, more practice牛津沈阳版 【本讲教育信息】 一. 教学内容: Chapter One: A letter from a pen-friend ——writing, more practice 二. 重点、难点 (一)重点语法: 英文书信的写法: 信纸的格式 书信分为正式信件和非正式信件(家人和朋友之间的信件)两种。常见的信纸格式 书信的格式 书信要写得简洁精练,尽量用简单句把意思表达清楚,使用的时态可根据情景灵活选用。 书信的写法包括: 1. 信头:发信人的地址和写信日期写在信纸的右上角,距信纸的顶头约一英寸,先写地址后写日期。地址按“门牌号,街名,城市,国名”等由小到大的顺序书写,日期可按“日,月,年”顺序或 “月,日,年”顺序写。 2. 信内姓名地址:收信人的姓名和地址,写在信纸的左上角,通常距信头最后一行低一行。 3. 称呼:收信人的称呼,写在信纸的左边,距信内姓名地址低两行或写在信头之下,相距一行,并与信内姓名地址齐头。 4. 正文:信的内容,从左向右横写,距称呼低一行 并与称呼齐头或缩进三,五个字母处起笔。 5. 结束语和谦称:发信人表示自己对收信人的一种客套的称呼,写在书信正文结尾下面,另起一行的位置上。一般它从正中或偏右(或偏左)处写起。英文客套结束语相当于中文书信末尾的”祝好,敬礼”“盼望早日复信”之类的客套话。常见的结束语有:Best wishes! Good luck!等等。英文书写末尾的谦称有如中文书信的”某某敬上”。谦称通常写在结束语下方。谦称的第一个字母要大写,最后要加逗号。收信人与写信人之间是朋友关系时常用:Yours/ Yours ever/Every yours/Always yours,等 6. 签名:发信人自己的姓名,写在客套结束语的下面一行(或两行)。可与客套结束语齐头或略向右靠一点。 信封的格式 英文书信写在信封正面的中间略偏右的地方写收信人的地址,注意要先写收信人的姓名,再从小到大写上收信人的地址,发信人的地址则按从小到大的顺序写在信封的左上角,或者是写在信封的背面。 (二)重点句子: 1. It was great to hear from you 收到你的信棒极了。 这句话所用的句型是 it is +形容词+to do sth., 表示“做某事很……”。it是形式主语,真正的主语是后面的动词不定式。这种结构能使句子很平稳,避免头重脚轻,同时起到强调形容词的作用。 Eg: It is fun to play computer games. 打电脑游戏很好玩。 It would be wonderful to travel in the space.太空旅行肯定会是很奇妙的。 It is important to plant trees. 植树很重要。 动词hear的意思是:听见,听,作及物动词后接宾语时,表示直接听到某种声音。当hear 作不及物动词时,常与from, of , about 等词搭配,构成动词短语。 1) hear from sb. 表示:收到某人的来信,电子邮件等 Eg: She hasn’t heard from her husband since he left home. 自从丈夫离家以来,她还没有收到过他的书信。 2)hear of / about 表示间接听到或听说了某人某事。 Eg: I listened but heard nothing. 我听了听,但什么也没听到。 I heard of it long ago. 我很久以前就听人说起过此事。 2. Jackie Chan came into this world in 1954, the son of a poor couple who went to Hong Kong from Shandong , China. 1954年,成龙来到了这个世界上,他是一对从中国山东来到香港的贫穷夫妇的儿子。 came into this world: 来到这个世界上, 实际上是指:出生 = was born . 不过come into this world 更具有故事性,使文章更具有文学色彩。 The son of a poor couple 作 Jackie Chan 的同位语. Eg: Jupiter, the largest plant of the solar system , has six satellites. 水星——这颗太阳系中最大的行星,有六颗卫星. who went to Hong Kong from Shandong, China 是一个定语从句, 修饰couple , 表示从中国来到香港的夫妇. 由于先行词couple 是指人,所以关系代词是who . Eg: Tom is not the boy who broke the window. 汤姆不是打破玻璃的那个男孩。 3. When he was born , his parents did not have enough money to pay the hospital. 他出生时,他父母没有足够的钱交住院费。 enough 在此处作定语,修饰名词money . enough 作定语时有两种用法. (1)用作定语修饰名词时,通常放在名词的前面. Eg: We don’t have enough time. 我们没有足够的时间. Have you got enough money for these CDs? 买这些CD, 你的钱够么? There is enough in the fridge. 冰箱里有足够的食物. The climbers didn’t take enough food and water. 那些登山者没有携带足够的食物和饮水。 (2)用作定语修饰形容词时,放在形容词的后面。 The hotel is big enough to hold 800 guests. 这家酒店足以接待800名宾客. You are old enough to decide what you should do and what you shouldn’t. 你已经到了知道什么该做什么不该做的时候了。 4. They named him Chan Kong-sang , which means born in Hong Kong, to celebrate their safe arrival in Hong Kong. 他们给他起名叫陈港生,意思是出生在香港,以此来庆祝他们平安到达香港。 句中name 作动词,name sb./sth. +名称,表示把某人或某物起名为…… She named her pet cat Mimi. The scientist found a new star and named it after his own name. 那位科学家发现了一颗新的恒星,并以自己的名字命名。 which 引导的是一个非限定性定语从句,修饰Chan Kong- sang. 非限定性定语从句通常用逗号与主句隔开。 Lily is fond of her new cell phone , which her father bough for her in Hong Kong. 丽丽很喜欢她的新手机,这是他父亲在香港为她买的。 句中to celebrate…..是对谓语动词作补充说明,表明取名的目的。这种to do sth.的短语常用于说明谓语动词的目的.当需要强调这一目的时,可将该短语提到句首。 We come here to see you. 我们是来看望你的。(to see you表示目的) He wants to go to Canada to learn English. 他想去加拿大学英语。( to learn English 表示目的) They get up early to take the plane. 他们早起是为了赶飞机.( to take the plane 表示目的) To keep a large family, he has to do two jobs at the same time. 为了养活一大家子人,他不得不同时打两份工。 5. The family live in the French Embassy where Jackie’s father works as a cook and his mother a housekeeper. 这家人住在法国大使馆,成龙的父亲在那当厨师,母亲当帮佣。 Live in + 地点名词,表示:住在某地,介词in 不可漏掉,当表示地点的词是 here, there 等副词时不加in。 Eg: We live in China. 我们住在中国。 He lives in a small town. 他住在一个小镇上。 Where do you live? 你住在哪? Would you like to live here? 你愿意在这住么? 句中where 引导的是一个定语从句,修饰the French Embassy . 当现行词是表示地点的名词时,通常用关系副词where 引导定语从句。 This is the hospital where you were born.这就是你出生的那家医院. He wants to go to the big city where he hopes to find a good job. 他想到那个大城市去,希望在那找到一份好工作。 此句中this mother 后面省略了谓语动词 worked as. 在此并列句中,当后一句的谓语动词与前一句的谓语动词相同时,后一句的谓语动词可以省略。这是英语中。一种省略方式,不过这种省略句多用于书面语。 Eg: Somebody lives for money and somebody else for love. 有人为钱而活,也有些人为情而活。 The boys are watching the games and the girls the TV play. 男生在看比赛,女生在看电视剧。 Jackie’s life was destined to change greatly from the moment his father decided that boy should learn some skills, and sent him to the China Drama Academy. 从他父亲决定这个男孩应该学一些技艺并把他送到中国戏剧学院那一刻起,成龙的生活注定要发生巨大的变化。 句中his father …… the China Drama Academy 是一个定语从句,修饰the moment ,表示:从他父亲……的那一刻起. Eg: Her life was destined to change greatly from the moment she married a billionaire .从她嫁给一个亿万富翁的那一刻起,她的命运注定要发生变化。 He worked hard from the first day he went to school. 从他上学的那一天起,他就很努力。 在该定语从句中,that 引导的一个定语从句,做decide 的宾语。 (三)重点词组: 1. have to 表示必须,不得不,指客观需要.其常用结构是:have to do sth. 如:We can’t do it. We have to ask the police for help.这事我们干不了,我们必须向警方求助。 He has to go now. He’s going to catch the plane.他现在得走了。他要赶飞机。 You don’t have to buy any food. There is still much in the fridge. 你不必买食品了.冰箱里还有好多呢. 2. (1) 句中be destined to do 表示 注定要(做某事)。如: His plan is destined to fail. 他的计划注定要失败。 Mary was born in a rich family. She was destined to live an easy life. 玛丽出身豪门,她命中注定要过好日子。 (2) be destined (for/to + 名词)表示“预定,指定……”。如: These ships are destined for New York.这些船都是要开往纽约的。 John was originally destined to the bar.起初是想叫约翰去学当律师。 3. (1) try to do sth. 表示“尽力,努力去做某事”。如: The government is trying to help the poor children go to school. 政府正在竭力帮助儿童就学。 When we read, we should try to guess the meaning of the words. 阅读时,我们应该尽量去猜词义。 (2) very hard 作状语,修饰动词try. 1) very是一个副词,表“很,非常”,可用于修饰副词或形容词。 如:He works very hard. 他工作很努力。(修饰副词hard) 2)hard 作副词,表示“努力的”。注意:hard修饰动词时,表示“努力地,用力地” 而修饰名词时,或跟在be动词后面做表语时,hard作形容词,表示“困难的,艰难的”。 如: The little girl is crying hard.小女孩正在使劲地哭。 Learning English is fun, not hard work. 学英语很有趣,并非难事 。 Do you think learning English is hard? 你认为学英语很难么? (3) raise money表示“筹钱,筹款”。表达此义,也可以用collect money。如: The pop stars gave a concert to raise/collect money to help the poor children in Africa. 流行歌星们举办了一场音乐会,为非洲的贫困儿童筹款。 (四)重点试题: 按要求改写下列句子 1. She wants to be an actress.(改为同义句) She ______ ______ to be an actress. 2. Her age is fifteen. ______ is fifteen ______ ______. 3. What’s her address? ______ ______ she ______? 4. What does your father work as? What ______ your father ______? 5. His parents have a restaurant in town. His parent ______ a restaurant in town. 6. Her ambition is to be an engineer. (对画线部分提问) ______ ______ her ambition? 7. I was born in 1991. ______ ______ ______ ______? 【模拟试题】(答题时间:60分钟) 一. 选择 1. When Miss Green began to________ something, the two boys stopped ______ and become quiet. A. speak, telling B. talk, speaking C. say, talking D. tell, saying 2. Harry Potter is an ______book for children, but my cousin isn’t _____in it at all. A. interesting, interested B. interested, interested C. interesting, interest D. interested, interesting 3. We have two bedrooms, but _______of them is big enough for six people to live in. A. none B. both C. any D. neither 4. 棗Could I get you something to drink, Mr. Smith? 棗________. I am thirsty. A. Here you are B.t No, thank you C. You’re welcome D. Yes, please 5. _____China is ______ old country with _______long history. A. The, an, a B. /, an, a C. /,an, the D. /, the ,a 6. Please buy some stamps for me if you ______the post office. A. pass B. will pass C. have passed D. passed 7. Do you know __________this time yesterday? A. what they were doing B. what are they doing C. what they are doing D. what were they doing 8. The accident happened on ________. A. nine day of March B. the nine day of March C. nine days of March D. the ninth of March 9. I’m reading now. Please tell him _______the TV a bit. A. turn up B. turn off C. to turn down D. to turn on 10. 棗Who taught _______English? 棗Nobody. She learned all by ______. A. herself, her B. she, herself C. her, herself D. her, she 11. To our_______, the old man climbed up to the top of the mountain. A. surprised B. surprises C. surprise D. surprising 12. 棗I called you last night, but nobody answered the phone. A. Sorry, I was out last nlight B. Right. See you then C. It doesn’t matter D. Can I take a message 13. 棗When did you come to China? 棗In 1999. I _____in Beijing since then. A. lived B. have lived C. am living D. will live 14. Tom likes cars. He enjoys ______model cars of all kinds. A. collecelts B. collecting C. to collect D. collected 15. It was a very long day for Jack. He didn’t get home from school _____six o’clock. A. since B. to C. by D. until 16. His sister _______only one hour on her homework every day. A. uses B. spends C. cost D. takes 17. When we came to the beach, we suddenly heard someone __________for help. A. calls B. called C. calling D. to call 18. 棗________do you go on a picnic with your parents? 棗Seldom. A. What time B. How long C. How often D. How soon 19. Sheh,’s never late for meeting, ______she? A. is B. has C. isn’t D. hasn’t 20. The physics teacher told us that light _______much faster than sound. A. travelled B. was traveling C. to travel D. travels 二. 完成对话: A. I forgot that B. Of course, you do C. Go upstairs and go to bed D. I won’t E. That’s a good idea F. I like to go fishing with Grandpa G. OK A: Mary, it’s your bed time. ________1_________ B: Oh, Mum!_____2____ It’s Friday evening and it’s still early. A: Yes. Tomorrow we have to get up to catch the train to your grandpa’s. B: ___3___OK. I’ll go to bed right now. ____4___Oh, Mum, do I have to brush my teeth before I go to sleep? A: ____5___And don’t forget to open the bedroom window. B: ______6___Good night, Mum! A: Good night. 三. 完形填空 (A) The computer is a very wonderful machine, and it’s so ___1____today that it seems we __2___live or work without it . Computers are used in many ___3___---in factories, in offices, in big shops, at schools and even at home. With the computers people live a better ___4__. The computer is one of the greatest inventions in the ___5____century in China. The first computer was built in America which was named Eniac, and it was not only very____6___, but also quite heavy. It was as big as two room.. But the computer is developing very fast. Today they are becoming smaller and smaller, lighter and lighter, and ___7____faster and faster. There are so many kinds of different computers in the market that you can easily choose one that you like best. As the computer can do a lot of things for people, it helps us to learn about the real world. With the computers we can ___8____E-mail just in a few seconds to your friend far away from the place you are having, but it will __9___ the post office a long time for your friend to receive your letter. Now you can see the computer really gives us a very nice picture about the world of tomorrow. So as a student in the 21st century, we have to work hard and learn how to ___10___the computer very well. Don’t you think so? ( )1. A. beautiful B. interesting C. popular D. enjoyable ( )2. A. can B. cannot C. must D. mustn’t ( )3. A. roads B. street C. crossings D. ways ( )4. A. life B. friend C. family D. country ( )5. A. 18th B. 19th C. 20 th D. 21 th ( )6. A. useful B. large C. small D. cheap ( )7. A. studying B. teaching C. walking D. working ( )8. A. give B. take C. post D. send ( )9. A. spend B. take C. pay D. use ( )10.A. get B. use C. read D. write 四. 阅读理解: (A) These days, more and more young people wish to be more beautiful, so they turn to plastic surgery(整形手术)for help.(B) They spend thousands of yuan on these painful surgeries to fix their nose, to change their eyelids(眼皮 ) or to take off weight from their stomachs. (A)_____ _____(事实上)most people are not pleased with the way they look. Even the most beautiful actresses often wish they could change something about their looks. Should we live our whole lives believing we are ugly? Why can’t we raise our head high and believe that we are as beautiful as others? A smile is beautiful on my face, whether fat, oily or hairy. And a kind heart is much more beautiful than a pretty look. So, let’s feel grateful that we all have beautiful and healthy bodies that do not need surgeries! Today, I call on you to make an easy change: hold your head high, smile and be kind to others. If you do these, you will be full of confidence, beauty, and warmth everywhere you go. ( )1. What do people think they can do to make their dreams come true? A. Sleep more B. Eat less C. Do sports D. Have surgery. ( )2. How can we feel great about ourselves according to the author? A. Hold your head up B. Smile C. Be kind D. A, Band C ( )3. Which is not true? A. Actresses never worry about their looks B. It costs a lot of money to have plastic surgeries. C. We only need to make a small change to feel beautiful enough D. A good look is less important than a kind heart. 4. 将A 处译成英语 ______ _______. 5. 写出B处的同义句They _______thousands of yuan _______these painful surgeries. (B) Stephen King is one of the most successful writers in the world. In 1975, he published a book called Carrie. Carrie is about a young girl who goes to a dance school where her school friends are unfriendly to her. She decides to hurt them and they die in frightening ways. When Carrie was published, it did not have the name of the writer or even the word “Carrie” on the book. It had only a few words about the story. At that time, no one knew about Stephen King, so his name meant nothing. Three years later, Carrie was made into a movie and was a great success. Since that first success, many of King’s books have been made into movies, including Christine, which is about a car that comes to life, The Shining, and Saand by Me. Stephen King writes horror stories and stories about the supernatural. He usually writes about ordinary people, in ordinary places. Perhaps this is the reason for his success——his readers think what happens to the people in his books could happen to them. Stephen King’s books have sold over a hundred million copies. He is one of the richest men in America and one of the richest writers in the world. Many people think that writing should be difficult and should take a long time. They think a writer should write slowly and with difficulty. He has written over 30 books in 15 years. He says he will continue to write best-sellers for years to come. 1. What is the first movie of Stephen King?__________________________________________ 2. When did the movie Carrie come out?____________________________________________ 3. What kind of story does Stephen King write?____________________________________ 4. How many books does King generally write every year?_____________________________ (C) A popular singer lost his life at the age of 37, because of stomach cancer(胃癌) on Thursday(April 20,2006) night in Shenzhen. Since 1994, Congfei used nearly all his earnings from commercial performance(商业演出收入 ) more than 3 million yuan helping 178 children pay their tuition fees(学费 ) .But he lived in a simple life. On April 11,he told his parents that he wanted to donate his corneas(捐献眼角膜 ). Two blind girls, aged 9 and 16, became the beneficiaries(收益者 ) of Cong’s final donation. “It was our son’s last donate his corneas,” said Li Caifeng, Cong’s mother. “When I see the recipients of my son’s corneas, it is like I see my son again.” In February, Cong was selected as a person who moved the whole country in a special national program organized by CCTV. One day before his death, he asked doctors to stop treatment. “It’s worthless to treat me now. Don’t waste money on me. Please give the valuable medical resources to people in real need. ” He said. Cong spent both his time and money helping children in need without any reservations. 1. What was Congfei’s job when he was alive?____________________________________ 2. How much his own money did Congfei use to support children to go to school?_______ 3. Who are the beneficiaries of Congfei’s last wish?________________________________ 4. In February, what happened to Congfei?________________________________________ 5. What can we learn from Congfei?______________________________________________ 【试题答案】 一. 1. B 2. A 3. D 4. D 5. B 6. A 7. A 8. D 9. C 10. C 11. C 12. A 13. B 14. B 15. D 16. B 17. C 18. C 19. B 20. D 二. 1. C 2. A 3. F 4. E 5. B 6. G 三. 1. C 2. B 3. D 4. A 5. C 6. C 7. D 8. D 9. B 10. B 四. (A)1. D 2. D 3. A 4. in fact (B)1. Carrie 2. 1978 3. Horror stories 4. A hundred million 5. pay for (C)1. A singer 2. 3 million yuan 3. Two blind girls, age 9 and 16 4. In February, Cong was selected as a person who moved the whole country in a special national program organized by CCTV. 5. We learn that we must help other people in our lives.

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